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KOS

Multifunctional Tissue Processor

One Multifunctional Device for All Major Applications

KOS is a multifunctional, bench top microwave processor. Built to process up to 110 cassettes at a time, KOS is ideal for smaller labs without large volumes or those in need of a processor that can also fulfill other functions within the lab. The multifunctional design of KOS allows it to be used successfully for many applications, including: rapid tissue processing, decalcification, special stains, fixation, gross hardening and antigen retrieval.
  • Flexibility of Applications
    Flexibility of Applications
  • Operator Safety
    Operator Safety
  • Fast Operations
    Fast Operations
  • Standardized protocols
    Standardized and Documented Protocols
  • Simple Process
    Ease of Use
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KOS tissue processor

HIGH DEFINITION MONITOR

enables to watch the process inside the chamber through a dedicated camera

TOUCHSCREEN 8″ TERMINAL

with user-friendly icons

STAINLESS STEEL TRAY

for extra bench space

CONNECTION TO FUME EXTRACTION

to improve operator safety

BUILT-IN CHARCOAL FILTER

for additional protection against formalin fumes

IR LASER SENSOR

for temperature control

STIRRING DEVICE

to constantly keep the specimen in contact with fresh reagent

High Quality Results

No compromise in regard to morphology and staining expression. Staining properties of processed specimens are excellent for H&E, IHC and FISH.
In a fraction of the time.

7 Laboratory Applications in One Multifunctional Device

Fast. Unmatched tissue processing time.

30 minutes
minutes
For transplant biopsies including fixation.
43 minutes
minutes
For 1 mm biopsies.
Add 13 minutes to include fixation.
100 minutes
minutes
For 2 mm biopsies.
Add 18 minutes to include fixation.
155 minutes
minutes
For 3 mm biopsies.
Add 30 minutes to include fixation.
* Times are based on Ethanol-Isopropanol and 4K module protocol.
1.

Rapid tissue processing

Rapid tissue processing is the primary application requested by most KOS users. KOS is a semi-automatic tissue processor and requires minimal interaction from the user: simply following the prompts on the icon-driven touchscreen terminal, the operator will move the tissues from fixation through dehydration, clearing and wax infiltration. A set of pre-stored programs and three specially developed Histomodules are available to meet the processing needs of any laboratory. Small batches of 1 to 4 cassettes utilize the 4K module; this allows flexibility for urgent processing of transplant or biopsies in as little as thirty minutes. Process up to 45 cassette batches using the 45K module, or increase capacity with the new 110 Cassette configuration.
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2.

Decalcification

KOS is ideal to perform rapid bone decalcification.
The user can run the standardized and optimized protocols, which are available from the menu. Through the innovative technology, KOS allows to perform decalcification and processing of bone samples in short times. This is possible thanks to the efficient stirring that maintains a constant flow of fresh decalcifier onto the bone surface and removes the saturated solutions from around the specimen, thus accelerating the decalcification process.
Recent reports have systematically investigated the effects of various fixation and decalcification agents on the quantity and quality of RNA and DNA recovered from bone biopsies. These reports concluded that the RNA and DNA yield and integrity are significantly reduced when strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric) are used in comparison with 12,5-14% EDTA and formic acid. For this reason, Milestone has developed MoL-DECALCIFIER, an innovative pure EDTA solution.
FIXATIVESDNA-YIELD (NG)RNA-YIELD (NG)DECAL TIME
14% ETDA
67.8
226.2
2 hours
Formic
41.5
175.0
2 hours
HNO3
11.4
51.7
2 hours
HCL/EDTA
5.3
30.5
2 hours
“Analysis of the effect of various decalcification agents on the quantity and quality of nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) recovered from bone biopsies”
Veena M. Singh et al. (2013).

StainsStandardKOSTime Saving
GMS (Fungi)
130 min.
25 min.
76%
GRIMELIUS (Agryrophil)
65 min.
13 min.
72%
MASSON TRICHROME
120 min.
32 min.
70%
MASSON FONTANA
80 min.
19 min
70%
PAS
50 min.
21 min.
50%
ALCIAN BLUE
34 min.
13 min.
61%
ZIEHL NIELSEN
39 min.
11 min.
61%
ELASTICA (ORCEIN)
30 min.
7 min.
62%
PEARLS IRON STAIN
21 min.
8 min.
46%
Times include non-microwave treatment steps.
3.

Special Stains

With KOS, special stains can be performed up to 76% faster: the staining procedures, which are usually time-consuming, are enhanced and speeded up by microwave irradiation. KOS has optimized protocols for the most common stains for 1-16 slides. The preset protocols will guide the operator through all the steps, included the steps to perform outside the unit, to guarantee operator independent and consistent results.
All the most requested special stains can be performed: GMS for Fungi, Grimelius (Argryrophil), Masson Trichrome, Masson Fontana, PAS, Alcian Blue, Ziehl Nielsen, Elastica (Orcein) Pearls Iron Stain.

4.

Antigen Retrieval

Nowadays, most of the laboratory devices do have protocols with antigen retrieval on board. But for some types of antibodies, it is necessary to perform the antigenic unmasking at very high temperatures.
Through dedicated modules, KOS allows to reach these temperatures in a short time. The protocols can be easily set up by selecting temperature, time and histomodules.
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Antigen Retrieval

Fixation with KOS
5.

Fixation

Milestone has developed three different fixation modules of up to 110 cassettes. Users can select the time at temperature protocol to fulfill all requirements of standardization and documentation for CAP/ASCO for HER2/ER.
Through the microwave exposure and optimized protocol at 50°C, KOS allows for faster fixation times, consistent results, complete and standardized fixation even in heterogeneous batches.

6.

Gross Hardening

Through a specific module, operators can perform gross hardening in the KOS unit. The gross specimen is hardened through microwave heating-induced coagulation of the proteins, while the tissue is immersed in saline solution. Preset protocols at 50° C and 65° C, with formalin and saline solution respectively, guarantee consistent results.

Gross Hardening

Electron Microscopy
7.

Electron Microscopy

KOS allows to perform rapid processing system for electron microscopy: through a dedicated kit and preset programs for different kind of resins, samples can be processed in 4 hours (polymerization included).
The design of the KOS EM system allows closed vessel processing from fixation through 100% resin, limiting to a minimum the operator’s exposure to toxic reagents. To avoid handling each individual specimen, all specimens are placed in processing cassettes stacked on a spindle that can hold 24 samples (6 cassettes of 4 samples each) or 48 samples (4 cassettes of 8 samples each).
This allows a simultaneous transfer of all the specimens from vial to vial.

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